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Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe" (Pater Europae), as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire and united parts of Europe that had never been under Roman rule.
His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church.
Peter's rights, dealing successfully with the Lombards.
Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, having been born before their canonical marriage.
These and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054.
Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for thirteen years.
This date supports the concept that Charlemagne was technically an illegitimate child, although that is not mentioned by Einhard, since he was born out of wedlock; Pepin and Bertrada were bound by a private contract or Friedelehe Quierzy and Prüm. Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pepin the Short (714 – 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 – 12 July 783), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne.
Many historians consider Charlemagne (Charles) to have been illegitimate, although some state that this is arguable, It would be folly, I think, to write a word concerning Charles' birth and infancy, or even his boyhood, for nothing has ever been written on the subject, and there is no one alive now who can give information on it.
The year given in the Annales Petaviani, 747, would be more likely, except that it contradicts Einhard and a few other sources in making Charlemagne seventy years old at his death.